Rainy Labour Day - Forex

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
submitted by GaslightEveryone to u/GaslightEveryone [link] [comments]

I ruined my career as a music artist. The years are passing by and the amount of regret and guilt are eating me alive.

Hello everyone.
First of all thank you for reading this and giving attention to my story I'm about to share. I want to mention this is a throwaway account because I feel shy talking about this subject. It is something personal to me.
To give you some quick background information about what's going on: - I'm currently 27 years old while my "career" has ended 7 years ago. In all this time in between, I've had the desire to achieve something similar but so far without the success I had imagined.

Here we go...
  1. When I was 12 years old, I had the desire to become an artist (a DJ/Electronic music artist). I had tons of ambition and motivation and had set my goal for life. From that point in my life I kept pursuing it and put in the hard work to achieve it. It was literally the thing that kept me awake at night. I imagined and visualized my dream of standing on a stage in front of 10k people and playing my own music. I visualized one of my idols supporting me and my music. That was the person I looked up to, the guy who sparkled my fire and inspired me to achieve something similar.
  2. Years went by where I got laughed at on every online forum possible. My music sucked, I was too confident about my thing and people basically told me it was pure shit haha. Yet it did not stop me from pursuing my dream. I was the little kid amongst older guys being better at this music production thing. It was fun to be honest. After 3 or 4 years, when I was around 16 my music got noticed by someone bigger than myself. My music started to get noticed by local clubs and "famous" DJ's. They started playing it every single week in clubs and reached out to me. That's where it all began. Somebody I looked up to emailed me and wanted to make a song together. That's what opened many doors for me. Eventually, it led to releasing (and distributing) a real song under my name and having more support and plays as I wished for.
  3. After a few more musical releases, I got approached again. This time by one of the biggest artists within this scene. I had the luck this scene was very local and everything happened in my country. So we met up. I was a shy little kid who took the train to cross the country to meet one of my idols. This was a big day. I felt like the luckiest and happiest kid alive. A dream coming true. My dream of being a star and realizing my goals didn't seem far away.
  4. Things went well from this point. It took some time but eventually near the time I graduated I was ready and settled to make this my business and job. I was happy, around 18 years old. And I was playing shows around the globe and earning a nice amount of money per booking. The fans and "likes" kept coming in and it seemed like I established some sort of fanbase. This was the life I imagined. My goal seemed reached and I was happy.
  5. As I grew older I started to become a bit more pessimistic or perfectionistic.. or both. There are a lot of fake things going on in the music business and I was not the type of artist who likes to play along with that. I felt real. I spoke real (to my fans, on my social media pages, etc), and I acted that way. I want to mention that at this same period of my life, my family was putting some sort of pressure on me that I should find a part-time job for some extra income. Since I didn't play shows every week, I didn't generate a stable income doing music alone. Yet this was the goal, and this was perfectly possible as almost everyone in my crew was making a living from this. I want to mention that "my crew" was my record label / booking agency where I was part of. I kept believing that this was possible but due the pressure and stress my family gave me I think I started to doubt myself at some point. Although I was living my dream and touring the world, my family didn't push or believe it enough so they would suggest me to find a parttime job. I hated that. Every time they brought that up it made me annoyed because I just wanted to focus on my career and because I knew I could pull this off.
  6. My career was still in a good line at that time. It was also the time I was smoking cannabis. I became an addict. It was something I did on a daily basis and I think it had a negative impact on my behavior and work ethic to produce music. It also had an impact on my social media posts and thoughts about the music industry.
  7. Eventually, everything let to the point where I made a social media post which my label and booking agency didn't like, at all. It was so "off-track" for them that they decided to cancel some of my bookings for that upcoming summer. My post was about justice, and I shared some of my thoughts on the "fake" aspect of this music business because it made me extremely annoyed how people could achieve the same things putting in less work than I did (friends, connections, money..). As my label and booking agency supported those fake activities as well, they were kind of pissed that I shared those honest words in front of my fans online.
  8. Since I was a honest person, stubborn, and perfectionistic, I was like "fuck this" and basically never made contact again with them. Eventually this led to my last booking and then my career died. To this day (7 years later), I still get spotify plays from those old songs, and I still get messages every now and then of people asking what happened and why I stopped making this music.
  9. I would like to mention that my interest for that specific genre was fading away near the time I made that post on my social media. Don't get me wrong, obviously, I would've loved to keep doing it as my job. But personally it just wasn't touching me that much anymore as there were other genres that started to appeal to me more.

Here is an important thing I remember telling my dad at the age of 20, after destroying my career and right before starting some labour work which I absolutely hated. "Dad, I'm going to do this job maximum 3 months before I'm off on another musical adventure in another style!".
So far 7 years have passed hopping jobs and not saving a lot of money. It's only been 2 years I finally been able to quit smoking cannabis. I have made tons of songs in all those years, and removed tons of songs completely from my computer because I hate them at some point and I get angry because of everything.
I get a few plays a month on Spotify with my new musical project but it never really took off. I decided to abandon my previous name and start from scratch because I didn't want any connection to my older project. The closest I got to achieving something big was another famous artist reaching out because he liked one of my songs, but eventually it led to nothing (unfortunately).
I have not played a single show as my new project and haven't got close to being successful or making this my job, at all.
As the years are passing by and I'm slowly starting to realize I'm no longer the "golden boy" (aka the little 13 year old kid with big dreams) it starts to eat me and devastate me mentally. It's a big part of my life and the dream is still alive but it feels like the fire or belief that I will get there is slowly fading away.
There have barely been days that I did not make music but no matter how much I produce or whatever genre or style I try, it doesn't seem to take off.
At this point, and for the last year, or 2-3 years, it has become worse.. I highly doubt every step I take and I feel like I cannot make any decision at all for my musical path anymore. I changed my artist name multiple times and even while writing this post I still think the name isn't good enough and I should start another project from scratch. I basically like a lot of genres and I can't seem to make a choice on what I really wanna go after. The musical world has exploded so much with social media and everything right after my career died and there just seems to be too much choice and things going on. I cannot seem to find the right path and I can't find my fire and ambition like I had when I was younger.
Every now and then I still look back at my musical colleagues which I abandoned 7 years ago and see what they are up to, what the music sounds like and how successful they are right now. It makes me feel worse but some part of me likes looking at it and imagined what I could've become. The fact of seeing them so successful right now and still doing their dream job just makes me even more sad realizing its been 7 years and I'm still living at home, hopping jobs and thinking how to take off on another musical path.
Last year I have met the most amazing girlfriend in the world, and in the meantime I found some other hobbies that I'm passionate about such as trading in forex and doing visuals. But I feel like it will never replace music since that's like my main-quest in life.
If I think about it, being able to do shows again and make an income being a music artist would make me the happiest person alive but there's no way I'm going back to my older project and certainly no way I'm going to knock on the door of my label and say 'Whatsup' after 7 years.
Without a doubt, my behavior and stubbornness led to the most stupid choice I ever made in my life.

Thanks for reading along. I might delete this post later because I feel like I shared too much personal stuff and it makes me insecure. Although I want to admit it felt good writing all of this.
Peace.
submitted by Top-Rub8826 to askatherapist [link] [comments]

I ruined my career as a music artist. The years are passing by and the amount of regret and guilt are eating me alive.

Hello everyone.
First of all thank you for reading this and giving attention to my story I'm about to share.I want to mention this is a throwaway account because I feel shy talking about this subject. It is something personal to me.
To give you some quick background information about what's going on:- I'm currently 27 years old while my "career" has ended 7 years ago. In all this time in between, I've had the desire to achieve something similar but so far without the success I had imagined.
Here we go...
  1. When I was 12 years old, I had the desire to become an artist (a DJ/Electronic music artist). I had tons of ambition and motivation and had set my goal for life.From that point in my life I kept pursuing it and put in the hard work to achieve it. It was literally the thing that kept me awake at night. I imagined and visualized my dream of standing on a stage in front of 10k people and playing my own music. I visualized one of my idols supporting me and my music. That was the person I looked up to, the guy who sparkled my fire and inspired me to achieve something similar.
  2. Years went by where I got laughed at on every online forum possible. My music sucked, I was too confident about my thing and people basically told me it was pure shit haha. Yet it did not stop me from pursuing my dream. I was the little kid amongst older guys being better at this music production thing. It was fun to be honest. After 3 or 4 years, when I was around 16 my music got noticed by someone bigger than myself. My music started to get noticed by local clubs and "famous" DJ's. They started playing it every single week in clubs and reached out to me. That's where it all began. Somebody I looked up to emailed me and wanted to make a song together. That's what opened many doors for me. Eventually, it led to releasing (and distributing) a real song under my name and having more support and plays as I wished for.
  3. After a few more musical releases, I got approached again. This time by one of the biggest artists within this scene. I had the luck this scene was very local and everything happened in my country. So we met up. I was a shy little kid who took the train to cross the country to meet one of my idols. This was a big day. I felt like the luckiest and happiest kid alive. A dream coming true. My dream of being a star and realizing my goals didn't seem far away.
  4. Things went well from this point. It took some time but eventually near the time I graduated I was ready and settled to make this my business and job. I was happy, around 18 years old. And I was playing shows around the globe and earning a nice amount of money per booking. The fans and "likes" kept coming in and it seemed like I established some sort of fanbase. This was the life I imagined. My goal seemed reached and I was happy.
  5. As I grew older I started to become a bit more pessimistic or perfectionistic.. or both. There are a lot of fake things going on in the music business and I was not the type of artist who likes to play along with that. I felt real. I spoke real (to my fans, on my social media pages, etc), and I acted that way. I want to mention that at this same period of my life, my family was putting some sort of pressure on me that I should find a part-time job for some extra income. Since I didn't play shows every week, I didn't generate a stable income doing music alone. Yet this was the goal, and this was perfectly possible as almost everyone in my crew was making a living from this. I want to mention that "my crew" was my record label / booking agency where I was part of. I kept believing that this was possible but due the pressure and stress my family gave me I think I started to doubt myself at some point. Although I was living my dream and touring the world, my family didn't push or believe it enough so they would suggest me to find a parttime job. I hated that. Every time they brought that up it made me annoyed because I just wanted to focus on my career and because I knew I could pull this off.
  6. My career was still in a good line at that time. It was also the time I was smoking cannabis. I became an addict. It was something I did on a daily basis and I think it had a negative impact on my behavior and work ethic to produce music. It also had an impact on my social media posts and thoughts about the music industry.
  7. Eventually, everything let to the point where I made a social media post which my label and booking agency didn't like, at all. It was so "off-track" for them that they decided to cancel some of my bookings for that upcoming summer. My post was about justice, and I shared some of my thoughts on the "fake" aspect of this music business because it made me extremely annoyed how people could achieve the same things putting in less work than I did (friends, connections, money..). As my label and booking agency supported those fake activities as well, they were kind of pissed that I shared those honest words in front of my fans online.
  8. Since I was a honest person, stubborn, and perfectionistic, I was like "fuck this" and basically never made contact again with them. Eventually this led to my last booking and then my career died. To this day (7 years later), I still get spotify plays from those old songs, and I still get messages every now and then of people asking what happened and why I stopped making this music.
  9. I would like to mention that my interest for that specific genre was fading away near the time I made that post on my social media. Don't get me wrong, obviously, I would've loved to keep doing it as my job. But personally it just wasn't touching me that much anymore as there were other genres that started to appeal to me more.

Here is an important thing I remember telling my dad at the age of 20, after destroying my career and right before starting some labour work which I absolutely hated. "Dad, I'm going to do this job maximum 3 months before I'm off on another musical adventure in another style!".
So far 7 years have passed hopping jobs and not saving a lot of money. It's only been 2 years I finally been able to quit smoking cannabis. I have made tons of songs in all those years, and removed tons of songs completely from my computer because I hate them at some point and I get angry because of everything.
I get a few plays a month on Spotify with my new musical project but it never really took off. I decided to abandon my previous name and start from scratch because I didn't want any connection to my older project. The closest I got to achieving something big was another famous artist reaching out because he liked one of my songs, but eventually it led to nothing (unfortunately).
I have not played a single show as my new project and haven't got close to being successful or making this my job, at all.
As the years are passing by and I'm slowly starting to realize I'm no longer the "golden boy" (aka the little 13 year old kid with big dreams) it starts to eat me and devastate me mentally. It's a big part of my life and the dream is still alive but it feels like the fire or belief that I will get there is slowly fading away.
There have barely been days that I did not make music but no matter how much I produce or whatever genre or style I try, it doesn't seem to take off.
At this point, and for the last year, or 2-3 years, it has become worse.. I highly doubt every step I take and I feel like I cannot make any decision at all for my musical path anymore. I changed my artist name multiple times and even while writing this post I still think the name isn't good enough and I should start another project from scratch. I basically like a lot of genres and I can't seem to make a choice on what I really wanna go after. The musical world has exploded so much with social media and everything right after my career died and there just seems to be too much choice and things going on. I cannot seem to find the right path and I can't find my fire and ambition like I had when I was younger.
Every now and then I still look back at my musical colleagues which I abandoned 7 years ago and see what they are up to, what the music sounds like and how successful they are right now. It makes me feel worse but some part of me likes looking at it and imagined what I could've become. The fact of seeing them so successful right now and still doing their dream job just makes me even more sad realizing its been 7 years and I'm still living at home, hopping jobs and thinking how to take off on another musical path.
Last year I have met the most amazing girlfriend in the world, and in the meantime I found some other hobbies that I'm passionate about such as trading in forex and doing visuals. But I feel like it will never replace music since that's like my main-quest in life.
If I think about it, being able to do shows again and make an income being a music artist would make me the happiest person alive but there's no way I'm going back to my older project and certainly no way I'm going to knock on the door of my label and say 'Whatsup' after 7 years.
Without a doubt, my behavior and stubbornness led to the most stupid choice I ever made in my life.

Thanks for reading along. I might delete this post later because I feel like I shared too much personal stuff and it makes me insecure. Although I want to admit it felt good writing all of this.
Peace.
submitted by Top-Rub8826 to Advice [link] [comments]

Can you help me to identify a good career to support myself whilst I commit my youth to training to attempt to become a professional boxer?

I realise this is a really long post, there is a TL, DR at the bottom for those that are not interested in the details of my life.

So firstly, some context about me - if you're interested:

Disclaimer: I'm really sorry if I sound incredibly arrogant here, but the truth is I can't be as 'intelligent' as I think I am if I have made as many mistakes as I have in my past to end up where I currently am - just take it as though I’m selling myself for a job interview.
I would consider myself to be the absolute definition of a neurodiverse generalist-specialist - in fact when I was 16 (I'm currently 20) my psychology teacher would always refer to me as the "master of all trades" (and despite as flattering as that was, there was obviously an element of hyperbole there). I am fairly autonomous; however, I am also a neophile (and my theory is that this element of myself is the biggest reason for why I am the way that I am). I am either incredibly hyper focused or completely distracted - however I have been working on developing an element of moderation to these two extremes of my character. Just to clarify though, I don't consider myself 'good at everything' - I'm actually usually the WORST at a lot of things when I first begin, and in all honesty the only thing a lot of people I know would say I'm genuinely naturally 'good at' is learning (which I really, really have come to appreciate over the years) - but I wouldn't say I have any 'innate talents' or any 'elite endowments'. For example: I'm not the best at Maths, I don't have a gift for music, I can't speak multiple languages, and I'm not the fastest or the strongest - BUT, despite whatever disadvantages I have, I have always had the supreme confidence that if I really try, and if I really dedicate myself I can reach the top ~5% of most things. In other words, I can at least do the things that don't require talent that will close the gap between myself and those at the most elite level of a particular discipline. I know this isn't unique to me, however it is something that I have had a good comprehension of since I was very young.
However, the super-power I discovered is this: if I can reach the top ~5% of most disciplines, then I have the LARGEST advantage in the most multi-disciplinary subjects. The more versatility, variety, and integration a subject requires - the higher and higher I have noticed my potential to be within it (and I will relate this to boxing soon).
To vaguely illustrate the point, I spend A LOT of time researching very high level multi-disciplinary subjects such as Bio-Chemistry and Physiology; Neuroscience and its connections to computation, reality, consciousness, and the practical applications of novel cognitive and neural strategies in sports and the acquisition of new 'abilities/skill'; Data science, artificial intelligence, human history, neurobiology, and systems engineering and how they could shape a society better fit for humans, their needs, desires, and purpose etc. etc. etc.
I have been employed since the age of 13 and have grew up in a poor part of inner-city Birmingham, UK, from birth. My parents are 'un-skilled labourers' however have had to care for my disabled brother since before I was born, and their opportunities to progress their material conditions were, and still can be, incredibly limited; for these reasons my parents are unable to give me more support than they already do (I appreciate and love my parents a lot; they give me shelter rent free, and are always supportive of me and my ambitions). I've also always worked 'low-skilled', poor rate of pay jobs that require a lot of time investment in order to change my material circumstances: Hair salon cleaner, Fish and Chip shop, Go-kart track race Marshall, and currently I am an apprentice mechanic (21 months into the 36months required to fully qualify) - I also sold weed for some supplemental income when I was 17/18 but those days are behind me.

The 'problem' though, is this:

Despite my attraction to 'novelty' and my history of what appears to be 'commitment issues' - I've finally settled on a path that I am willing to commit my entire youth towards - but I am unable to support myself financially (and therefore at-all) if I am to make the sacrifices I need to make to be serious about this lifestyle. The main problem is time, and the second is money (go figure!).
So essentially, where I'd like to be right now is: spending approximately up to 7 hours a day training (preferably most of that time in the mornings), AND saving enough money to where I have options 5-7 years from now if my efforts unfortunately do not pay off. At this point you can see why I'm having difficulty... I'm pretty sure that it's literally everyone's goal ever to earn enough money to depend on, in a minimal amount of time- however I don't need to earn a lot - just whatever is sustainable for the next 5-7 years... as long as I am able to pay for my abstract needs, with some disposable income I will be happy. THE ONLY OTHER CRITERIA is that it just can't be something monotonous. I'm here because I'd still like to develop a career suited for my skills alongside boxing if possible - but if the best case scenario is that I have to just work a minimum wage job for now, it has to be something that allows me to progress into more meaningful work that is more intellectually stimulating. Basically, a part-time job in a field that I’m interested in, where there is a very real possibility of me attaining more skilled and better paying roles.

What makes all of this complicated (sort of):

Due to a lack of personal responsibility, and a past struggle with depression I dropped out of my tertiary education (the step before getting a degree) before I received any qualifications. I do have a very, very exceptional set of secondary education qualifications - but those are only good for FURTHER education and aren't really beneficial when trying to gain employment - at least if I already had some tertiary education qualification(s) it would open up some doors to a set of slightly higher paying jobs that would (with an assumed degree of flexibility) at least enable me to work less hours and be closer to my ideal situation. I'm slightly adverse to going back into education for now, only because it will reduce the amount of time to generate some capital and train at the same time. I actually really would love to go to University (for something like Physiology with Neuroscience), but I don't want to slow down my current progress in Boxing - as time is of the essence and I will reach my biological prime fairly soon. I am fairly certain that whether my boxing career takes off or not, I will almost certainly end up going to university at a later point in my life, just because I genuinely have an interest in attaining a degree, however, as I already stated, I currently do not possess the qualifications to be accepted into University - and gaining those qualifications would also set me back in my boxing progression further.
DESPITE THIS, I would be willing to complete a degree apprenticeship (so long as it’s in a field I'd consider a degree in), because I will be able to save money and sort out my finances from now, and only have to slow down my training for the next 3 years (and in all honesty that's at a push) until I'm able to (hopefully) establish a better work-life balance to, again, attain my ideal situation.
At this point, I’m expecting to receive replies that will tell me to continue with my apprenticeship - especially because of the fact that I'm more than halfway through - however I will throw some spanners in the works (lol). I am already on a wage that would just about be in that range where I am able to pay for my abstract needs, with some disposable income (which is actually less than NMW here because it's an apprenticeship) - however I have gotten into debt because for the first year I was on an even lower rate of pay that was just not sustainable to meet my needs and therefore I made the sacrifice to accrue some debt, thinking it would be a worthwhile investment. Furthermore I must (and have been) buy(ing) an adequate collection of tools before my apprenticeship ends to retain employment - and tools are not cheap so this further reduces my take home pay (and will continue to do so for the duration of the apprenticeship). Not only that, but once I finish the apprenticeship, I would not like to continue my 40-hour work week - nor would I choose to stay on with my employer.
Despite this, there is good potential to be more autonomous and flexible, and earn quite a lot of money by being a self-employed mechanic - but the amount of money I will have to spend to acquire the tools and facilities required to be a profitable mechanic will take me some time, further delaying my progress in boxing. Furthermore, it would be great if I had the knowledge and experience to be a self-employed mechanic, but attaining the qualification is the sole purpose of the apprenticeship - not becoming a good mechanic; I only work on newer models of a certain brand and therefore my exposure to different configurations of mechanisms, and diagnosis and rectification of different issues is limited also, which will make it difficult to have a large enough volume of potential customers to be worthwhile, unless I spend additional time in a 'backstreet' garage. I did have the thought of applying to a 'backstreet' garage and gaining these experiences and knowledge NOW, so that when I do finish, I could potentially have an easier start becoming self-employed - however I have sacrificed the amount of time that I spent being active before and this is what led me to my previous stage of being deeply depressed, and I do not want to make that same mistake again - athletic development really is my self-designated purpose in life.
Disclaimer: Obviously I don’t NEED to train extensive hours every day for my mental health - but I DO need to make sure that I do not reach the age of 30/40 with regret wondering what could have been if I was courageous enough to risk it all- that's literally it. I just won't be able to live with myself if I don't at least do everything I can to try to succeed whilst I still have the opportunity. Once I’m beyond my prime, I can deal with spending my time differently, but I wake up with a sense of urgency towards becoming the most athletically developed as I possibly can every morning.
I've thought about doing something like Forex or content creation - but I don’t think it's very smart to invest both my plan A and B in risky 'gig economy' style careers. I've also thought about having a career within boxing - however I don't know of any good opportunities other than competing and I'm scared anything else will kill my passion for my desire to compete also. A possibility that I have just recently began playing with though, is to begin creating an online boxing profile for myself on various social media websites - to share high quality videos of my training and performance in the hopes that I may gain a following that will enable me to gain sponsorship(s) of some sort. The only reason I hadn't done this sooner is because I have only just started to attain a level of skill and ability that I feel is 'rare' - I still have so much to work on, and this is my point, that I have no time to waste. A lot of guys will just throw themselves out there too early but, as some of my greatest idols, I follow the philosophy of Mike Tyson and Cus D’Amato - Amateurs should take their time before they start competing (I am only just about to start competing in amateurs, but coronavirus lol) because we want to dominate, and not compete. I know it may seem silly to be so, so, so focused on Boxing as a career - especially when I am not that 'tried and tested' but I know I can't just give up because I haven't yet proved myself to other people.
If you've made it this far, I am incredibly impressed by your ability to focus your attention on someone else's self-absorbed first world problems for this long - and I am incredibly thankful that you continued despite my lack of concision and the horrible formatting of this huge boring wall of text. <3 What would your advise be for me?

TL, DR:

I have a good history of low-skill employment; (In my opinion) I'm under-qualified for my level of 'intellectual capability' (through no faults other than my own), and I feel like I am already prepared for a higher-skill job - so long as I was given the opportunity to prove my ability - however I am a choosing beggar in the sense that I am trying to create a great work-life balance despite my large demands as to what constitutes 'life'; despite this I'm willing to live frugally for a while in order to make my dream a reality - but do need some disposable income to pay off some debts I have accrued and also to prepare myself financially just in-case I am unable to make my dream of becoming a professional boxer a reality once all is said and done.
Therefore, with these circumstances what do you think is the best course of action to reach my ideal situation of: working part-time for (up to) 30 hours a week to begin building a career that will not feel like a form of mental torture due to the monotony of - and one that has good potential to increase earnings without increasing my commitments to work (mainly time) - something that pays me because of the extra value I can provide (funny how hard this seems - not sure if this says something about me hahaha). I have interests in all the sciences (mainly life science, but the STEM and Natural sciences are good too), public health, using tools (as long as they're not as expensive as a mechanic's hahaha), and anything that allows me to be more autonomous and learn about novel things - or at least contribute to the development of knowledge.
The only thing I know is that I DO need to make sure that I do not reach the age of 30/40 with regret wondering what could have been if I was courageous enough to risk it all- that's literally it. I just won't be able to live with myself if I don't at least do everything I can to try to succeed whilst I still have the opportunity. Once I’m beyond my prime, I can deal with spending my time differently, but I wake up with a sense of urgency towards becoming one of the best boxers the world has ever seen.
Edit: It's funny how one of the first things I mentioned is that I'm a 'generalist-specialist'... and then this whole post is about spreading myself too thin hahaha.
submitted by OnePrettyFlyWhiteGuy to careerguidance [link] [comments]

What's Happening in May 2019?


Public holidays Labour Day 1st May, Wednesday
Cinco De Mayo 5th May, Sunday (Not Observed)
Mother's Day 12th May, Sunday (Not Observed)
Vesak Day 19th May, Sunday (Observed: 20th May, Monday)

Ongoing Events


Every Sunday Music Jazz Jam Sessions Cask and Bangers Free 9pm
Till 12 May Culinary; Festival WGS 2019: Sustainability in the Gastronomy World Various Various Schedule here
Family; Theatre The Very Hungry Caterpillar and Other Eric Carle Favourites Victoria Theatre From $18 Various Showtimes
Social Sparks Connection Various From $39.90 Various
Till 25 May Workshop Teochew Classes for Beginners Sakae Building $239.38 9am
Till 8 Jun Musical The Phantom of the Opera Sands Theatre at Marina Bay Sands From $75 Various Showtimes
Every Fri - Sun; Till 30 June Exhibition; Family 22 Stories Ayer Rajah Community Club From $38 Fri - 5.30pm - 9.30pm; Sat & Sun - 10am-2pm & 5.30pm - 9.30pm
Till 27th Jul Music Singapore Rhapsodies at National Museum National Museum of Singapore Free Various Timings
Till 22 Sep Exhibition Wonderland ArtScience Museum $18 10am - 7pm

Events by Date


DATE DAY/DURATION CATEGORY EVENT VENUE PRICE ADDITIONAL INFO
01 Wednesday Tour Istana Open House Istana Park $2 8.30am - 6pm
Astronomy Journey to Space Istana Park Free 9am
Concert MAYDAY! [email protected] $72 2pm
02 Thursday Concert Atul Khatri - Live in Singapore SOTA Concert Hall From $50 8pm
Karaoke LIVE Rockstar Karaoke River Valley Road Free 6pm
Workshop Millennialship Workshop Clarke Quay Free 7pm - 9.30pm
03 Friday Concert Troye Sivan: ‘The Bloom Tour’ Singapore The Star Theatre From 98 8pm
Concert Bence Szepesi, Clarinet Esplanade Recital Studio $38 7.30pm
Concert RHYTHMS, RITES AND RENEWALS Esplanade Concert Hall From $18 7.30pm
Festival JustCo @ 20 Collyer Quay Open House Collyer Quay Free 11am
04 Saturday Concert Adam Gyorgy, Improvisations 2019 Esplanade Concert Hall From $18 7.30pm
Concert Jacintha Is Her Name Concert Esplanade Recital Studio $45 8pm
Concert Songs At Twilight Botanic Gardens Free 6pm - 7pm
Concert Very Venetian: Various Vivaldi Concerti The Theatre Practice Free 8pm
Concert FIVERA-Pop Opera live in Singapore Orchard From $98 6pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco De Mayo River Valley Free 8pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco De Mayo With Singapore Pub Crawl Raffles Place $33 7pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco de Mayo FeasTa Marina Boulevard $20 5pm
Mental Wellness Positive Psychology Day 2019 Orchard Road $22 11am
Books James Suresh @ Books Kinokuniya SG Kinokuniya Free 2pm
Tech AI + IoT Day by CloudxLab and IoTSG Singapore University of Social Sciences Free 9am
Tech Web Development for Beginners Henderson Free 10am
Cooking; Workshop Put Down Your Books, and Let's Cook Blossom Youth Centre $10/class 5pm
Sports BEDOK SOCCER GROUP Kaki Bukit Community Centre Free 8.30am
Sports CheekieFitness Partner Yoga Marina Bay From $10 7.45am
Mental Wellness Advance Care Planning Tampines Free 11am
05 Sunday Environment Coastal Clean Up: Sungei Seletar Sungei Seletar Free 4.30pm
06 Monday Music Nostalgic Melodies of Yesteryear with JOE & THE SOUL EXPRESS Esplanade Recital Studio $15 10.30am & 3pm
Social Unblue your Monday Cross Street $50 For 32 Years old and above only
Fitness; Health 1-Day Fitness Pass The Herencia $20 9am
06 - 12 Festival MOTHER’S DAY WEEK Punggol Free 11am - 8pm
07 Tuesday Drink; 18+ Vitasoy Barista Challenge Tampines $18 3pm
Sports IBC Sports - Basketball Methodist Girl's School Free 7pm
08 Wednesday Music Alex Hutchings Tubeology Clinic The Substation $21 7.30pm
Marketing; Workshop Social Media Marketing World M38 @ Jalan Pemimpin Free 7pm
Panel Discussion CSA APAC Summit 2019 Eunos Free 8.30am
09 Thursday Drink; 18+ Almaza Beer Pairing Event Church Street $53 6.30pm
Sports IBC Sports - Fishing TBC Free 5am
Sports IBC Sports - Cycling King's Road Free 6am
09 - 12 Family; Puppet Show ELMER THE PATCHWORK ELEPHANT SHOW KC Arts Centre From $42 Various Showtimes
10 Friday Concert ORIENTAL STRINGS Victoria Concert Hall From $23 7.30pm
Concert MISSA SOLEMNIS · MASAAKI SUZUKI Esplanade Concert Hall From $25 7.30pm
Social; Food Meet over Dinner Jurong $48 7pm
Keynote Session What You Need to Know About Freelancing in Photography. Selegie Road Free 7pm
10 - 11 Dance SIDES 2019 SOTA Studio Theatre $30 Various Showtimes
10 - 18 Festival; Drink Singapore Cocktail Festival 2019 Empress Lawns From $35 !8+
10 - 19 Film Festival European Union Film Festival National Gallery Singapore $12 Various Showtimes
11 Saturday Concert Jason Mraz: Good Vibes 2019 The Star Theatre From $98 8pm
Concert Jordan Chan Stop Angry Tour In Singapore 陈小春 Stop Angry 巡回演唱会新加坡站 Resorts World Convention Centre From $88 8pm
Workshop; Art Family Art Workshop National Gallery Singaproe From $20 1.30pm - 3pm
Music; Social Music Bingoi! Hollandse Club $27 8.30pm - 12.30am
Music Cruising Reggae Beats Party Deutschlander Free 10pm - 3am
Movie; Food Afternoon Tea and Movie Suntec City $49 2.30pm
Social; Food Bond Over Lunch Buona Vista $45 12.30pm
Social; Food CLASSIC DATING WESTERN DINNER Suntec City $49 6.30pm; Over 30 years old only
Art; Workshop AGAVE ACRYLIC PAINTING WORKSHOP Gardens by the Bay $30 3pm - 5pm
Family; Tech Microthon 2019 IDEAS Hub Free 9am
11 & 12 Food; Market Sprout 2019 Suntec Singapore Convention Free 10am - 8pm
12 Sunday
Concert Katya: Help Me I'm Dying - Live in Singapore Shine Auditorium From $88 8pm
Concert SSO MOTHER'S DAY CONCERT Singapore Botanic Gardens Free 6pm
Drink; 18+ Saturday Beer Club Orchard Centre $55 3pm
Workshop “Make-Your-Own” Blooming Tea Suntec Convention Centre $38 3.30pm
Entrepreneur PAK Challenge 2019 Finals SMU Free 2.30pm
13 Monday Concert Ding Yi Special Season Pass 2019 鼎艺团乐季特惠票 Various $62 Various Showtimes
13 & 15 Concert Esplanade Presents Mosaic Music Series Esplanade From $ 35 8pm
14 Tuesday Workshop Moms in Business Jalan Permimpin Free 10.30am; Other dates available
15 Wednesday Sports IBC Sports - Golf Various Free 1pm
15 - 26 Theatre Civilised Various Various Rated R18; Various timings
16 Thursday
16 May . 2 Jun Art Festival Singapore International Festival of Arts Esplanade Theatre Various Various Showtimes
17 Friday Concert Guftagoo with Gulzar Esplanade Concert Hall From $50 8pm
Seminar Limestone Hills in Peninsular Malaysia - to conserve or exploit Botanic Gardens Free 4pm - 5pm
Music Visages School of the Arts Free 7pm
17 - 20 Concert Series SSO Chamber Music Season Victoria Concert Hall $20 Various Showtimes
18 Saturday Concert KINGDOM HEARTS Orchestra –World of Tres– Esplanade Concert Hall From $109 8pm
Art; Nature Nature Sketching in the Gardens Botanic Gardens Free 9am
Workshop Turning IDEAS into Income A Good Space $22 10am
19 Sunday Health CVD & Hypertension/Hypotension Bartley Residences Free 3pm
20 Monday Concert IF WITH ALL YOUR HEARTS Victoria Concert Hall Free 12.30pm
21 Tuesday Music; Tour Victoria Concert Hall Open House Victoria Concert Hall Free 8.30am onwards
Panel Discussion; Tech How to Rapidly Build a Successful Technology Team Anson 79 Free 7pm
22 Wednesday Concert SYMPHONY OF VOICES 2019 Esplanade Concert Hall From $15 7.30pm
23 Thursday Workshop; Health CERT First Aider Course Woodlands Free 9am
Business Seminar Key Market Events and The Road to Forex Raffles City Free 7pm
23 & 24 Tech Echelon Asia Summit 2019 Singapore Expo From $10 9am
24 Friday Drink; 18+ Organic Wines from French Vineyards Nepal Park $45 7pm - 9.30pm
Art; Fashion Fashion meets Art F1 Pit Building Free 7.30pm
25 Saturday Festival AIA GLOW FESTIVAL Sentosa From $73 7pm - 11pm
Concert NOOR: Sounds of Sufi with Harshdeep Kaur and Javed Ali Esplanade Concert Hall From $35 8.15pm
Concert SLO Children's Choir Concert: How Far I'll Go Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
25 & 26 Tech Short Course- Data Analytics Using Python Victoria Street $600 9am - 6pm
Nature Festival of Biodiversity 2019 HDB Hub 10.30am - 10.30pm
Mental Wellness RevOILution Wellness Expo 2019 Marina Bay Sands Expo Free 9am - 7pm
25 May - 4 Jun Festival Esplanade presents Flipside Various From $20 Various Showtimes
26 Sunday Concert SONG BRIDGES Victoria Concert Hall $20 4pm
27 Monday Workshop The Science of Healthy Hair Orchard Free 7.30pm
29 Wednesday Sports MBC Fun Walk & Race Mapletree Business City Free 4pm
30 Thursday Concert 26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Sa Chen Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
30 May - 2 Jun Family Peter and Blue Go Around The World Presented by Singapore Dance Theatre Esplanade Theatre Studio $30 11am & 2pm
31 Friday Concert 26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Ronan O'Hora Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
Festival MOTHER'S DAY CELEBRATION Killiney Exchange $38 7pm
Family; Tech Mod & Hack 3D Games Bukit Timah Plaza 9.30am
submitted by eilletane to singapore [link] [comments]

Impact of GBP/USD If Jeremy Corbyn becomes Prime Minister?

Hi everyone, I wanted to ask a question for you all in the Forex trading world.
There's extremely likely to be an election in the United Kingdom very soon. Most probably at the end of November. It's always hard to predict elections but I'm going to go against the conventional polling and suggest that there'll be a hung parliament. This would mean that there would inevitably be a coalition or at least a supply and confidence agreement between the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish National Party (SNP). I don't have much experience in Forex although I'd like to posit what might occur if following events happen.

  1. An Election will be called around after October 31st which would drive the value of the pound down due to uncertainty
  2. The pound slowly rises due to expectations Boris Johnson and the Conservatives will win. This is borne out on flawed polling methodologies that will once again vastly underestimate the youth turnout in the country, similar to 2017.
  3. The result of election night will be a hung parliament that would look something like Conservatives-285 Labour-264 SNP-45 Liberal Democrats-35 Greens-1 Brexit Party-0 allowing for 1 independent and 18 Northern Irish seats. The uncertainty would drive the value of the pound down
  4. In the next few days after the election, it seems apparent that the Labour party, the Liberal Democrats and the SNP will form an agreement where they allow Jeremy Corbyn and John McDonnel to become Prime Minister and Chancellor respectively on the explicit proviso of a Second Referendum to remain or leave the European Union. The pound decreases yet again based on the longstanding concerns of Markets on the Labour Party's socialist agenda.
  5. Labour is hamstrung on their more radical proposals of nationalisation by the Liberal Democrats, likewise, they negotiate a deal that is similar to a Norway type arrangement which would preserve the economic arrangments of the UK's relationship with the European Union whilst ending the political ones. They commit to putting this to a referendum against remain. This makes the economic disruption of Brexit almost minimal. The pound rises
  6. Remain win the referendum, this is due to the lower turnout from harder leave voters who view a Norway type arrangement as unsatisfactory. The number of European Union Citizens that have obtained British Citizenship and the demographic shift in 2020 compared to 2016. The result is 58% to remain vs 42% to leave. This causes the value of the pound to rise however this will likely be priced in.
  7. The arrangement between the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats and the SNP collapses due to the raison d'être of the Liberal Democrats and the SNP of staying in the European Union is now accomplished. This causes the pound to decrease due to stability.
  8. An election leads to a surprise Conservative Victory. This causes the pound to rise
These are speculative events that are entirely academic. However, how would one go around modelling potential rises and falls in a currency based on historical data to make a relatively accurate prediction on price?
submitted by Apollo-Innovations to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Dollar supported after upbeat U.S. data, pound steadies

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 51%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar held firm at start of holiday-thinned week on Monday after U.S. data pointed to solid economic growth while the British pound found some stability after having suffered its biggest weekly fall in three years.
A batch of economic data published on Friday showed the U.S. economy, already in its longest expansion in history, appears to have maintained the moderate pace of growth as the year ended, supported by a strong labour market.
Earlier this year, investors were spooked by fear of a U.S. recession when the U.S. yield curve inverted, which has been historically one of the most reliable signs of a U.S. recession.
Separate data showed consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of U.S. economic activity, rose 0.4% last month as households stepped up purchases of motor vehicles and spent more on healthcare.
Against the yen, the dollar was traded at 109.47 yen JPY=, up 0.04% from late U.S. levels, not far from six-month high of 109.73 touched earlier this month.
The dollar tumbled as much as 4.4% on the second trading day of this year as a lack of yen liquidity due to Japanese market holiday amplified the dollayen's fall sparked by a rare revenue warning from Apple Inc. Currency speculators have cut their net short positions in the yen slightly in week that ended last Tuesday after having increased bets against the currency constantly for a few months, data from U.S. financial watchdog showed on Friday.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: U.S.#1 year#2 dollar#3 trade#4 data#5
Post found in /news.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

I'll keep on moving, as that what makes life to lively.

I’m a secretive person and don’t tell many stories, keeping them to myself, keeping my feelings to myself, but I decided that I need to be open about myself, my problems and accept love more fully, from family, friends and everyone.
I feel that opening about my past is the first step.
My childhood was chaotic, full of troubles and troubled people around me, because of the wars that still voided our peoples lives, that on it’s own is too much to cover, so I’ll stick to the main things.
I was growing in school, getting out of my depressed shell, of sitting on the PC countless hours, watching porn, being productive, being more courageous, getting to know people little by little, I got more control of my life. But then my father died when I was in high-school. The biggest problem was, that I was just getting to know him better and his kind ways, he was a mighty father.
So I slowly, with big resistance of trying to stay positive, went back to my depressive state. It wasn’t strong, it was subtle, just creeping over me, little by little, making my drinking reckless and taking bigger risks, resulting in injury. I was troubled, silent as always, but I found new friends after high-school which I could go out to the forests, camp there and talk about myself more. I felt understood.
Fast forward I’m in college, I meet new people, new people who I can relate too, who also have a hard time and seen plenty of death, I was raising once again.
Then on new years eve my grandmother died, who was a friend to my from childhood, who took care of me for the longest time. It was a hard death, with many problems in her last year, causing our family many troubles.
Again the silent depression seeped, but I was stronger this time.
I had troubles with my friends and had to move forward, I met more people from a youth center who related to my pains, I met people from my dancing classes who were like a new family to me. I was blessed by such experience.
I was doing well in college studying civil engineering, on my second year I got an internship in a job I dreamed to be in, but I had greater goal, which was charity and there was an organization I was watching that I wanted to join which was in Germany. My heart said go, so I quit my job and went to Germany, with great people who were amazing, productive and wise, but I had to leave after a month as I did not fit the role.
I’m back at square one from all my efforts to be in that charity organization, but I moved on, continued my studies, went to libraries on my free time and learned finance, how to manage my money, got into crypto, forex with small results, but I persisted in finding ways. I wanted to do something with my free time and not just sit around.
Back at home with all the connections I had, I got inspiration and didn’t give up.
I met my SO which was amazing, we weren’t very wealthy, but somehow we made the best of it. We got into spirituality, which helped see into our deeper selves and heal our past wounds how ever we could.
Time had come to get a job after my studies, I wanted to try something different and went to the office as a data analyst and it sucked. I got this job after 4 months of searching and I was desperate as money was running low.
After quitting the depressing office job, I had to decide again what to do. My choice was to go to the UK as there I had some great friends who could help me build my foundation up.
This meant leaving my family, SO, friends, home. A hard choice, but a choice I had already made, when I went to Germany.
With not much money, I went to UK, started to work as a cleaner where I had to work 104 hours over 10 days,. It was hard work, too much for my legs that I injured my leg joints in the process which hindered my work and I couldn’t work for 2 weeks, but I had to pursue and move forward, getting knee support and kept on moving. I then got my certifications to work in construction as a labourer which made things more reliable and easier. I knew I could get things to be better, so I kept on searching for opportunities.
Somehow, someway I got to be a civil engineer and got offers to be in a big construction company. Able to rise and not end up in a dead-end job.
And this is my place now, where I stand, finally achieved where I want to be, after being so indecisive, after so much trouble and effort.
Ha.
No, going to UK, I had plans for growing my career, but it was just a big step towards what I wanted to do.
And to move forward, I start by being open about my goals, by sharing them here as I’ve never shared them with anyone, I just stayed silent about them as no one would understand them when I was younger. But I know that on the web there are people that DO understand and I wish to write it here to be seen.
I thank you so much for hearing me.
I shall open myself more to the world and share my gifts as that is my mission. I will not stutter and doubt anymore, no matter who I lose, who dies or what happens, I shall grieve, cry, rest, re-plan, improve and move forward, as that I feel what living is, not standing in one place.
submitted by Nejustinas to DecidingToBeBetter [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: AskEconomics posts from 2018-08-22 to 2018-11-12 07:20 PDT

Period: 82.02 days
Submissions Comments
Total 979 6319
Rate (per day) 11.94 76.69
Unique Redditors 688 1060
Combined Score 5907 19076

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 322 points, 37 submissions: benjaminikuta
    1. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? (71 points, 12 comments)
    2. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? (64 points, 24 comments)
    3. Do powerful unions increase wages above the optimal level, or do firms with market power cause imperfect competition in the labor market, causing sub optimal wages? (Or both?) (27 points, 3 comments)
    4. How do economists measure unpaid work? (24 points, 8 comments)
    5. When it is said that someone in a third world country lives on a dollar a day, what does that actually mean? (22 points, 19 comments)
    6. What are some common misconceptions about economics? (14 points, 19 comments)
    7. What would be a better alternative to Bernie's proposal to tax employers of welfare recipients? (14 points, 65 comments)
    8. How effectively can negative externalities be quantified? (10 points, 7 comments)
    9. To what degree has the internet increased the liquidity of the labor market? (7 points, 3 comments)
    10. What happened with the Greek economic crisis? (7 points, 5 comments)
  2. 146 points, 30 submissions: Whynvme
    1. When economists refer to industrialization, does it mean a move from agricultural to manufacturing economy? Is the growth in services a different term? (22 points, 6 comments)
    2. Do economists actually calculate consumer surplus empirically, or is it more of s theoretical concept? (20 points, 5 comments)
    3. If we have cobb douglas preferences, my demand for x is not a function of the price of y. How do substitution effects arise then? (11 points, 6 comments)
    4. Is me making more money than I would necessarily require to work( so more than my 'opportunity wage') for a job an economic inefficiency? or is ineffiency in labor markets a wedge between my marginal revenue product and my wage? (11 points, 3 comments)
    5. why is ceteris paribus important for analyzing/thinking about the world? (11 points, 7 comments)
    6. Why does inflation necessarily mean wages will be increasing too? (6 points, 3 comments)
    7. some basic macro questions (6 points, 2 comments)
    8. what is meant by value added? (6 points, 3 comments)
    9. Trying to understand economies of scale, e.g. costco (5 points, 5 comments)
    10. Why would an economy implode long term if there are decreasing returns to scale? (5 points, 15 comments)
  3. 95 points, 2 submissions: MrDannyOcean
    1. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics (75 points, 135 comments)
    2. The new rules for AskEconomics are now in place. Please see the details within. (20 points, 20 comments)
  4. 79 points, 7 submissions: Fart_Gas
    1. Is free public transport a good idea? (41 points, 20 comments)
    2. Will Venezuela's plummeting economy make it a good choice for low-wage industries? (17 points, 8 comments)
    3. What might cause sudden inflation? (8 points, 2 comments)
    4. Why do some countries without hyperinflation use a foreign currency in everyday life? (8 points, 3 comments)
    5. Has any country tried reducing the minimum wage, and ended up with a good result from it? (3 points, 8 comments)
    6. Do boycotts really work? (1 point, 3 comments)
    7. Why do some businesses sponsor sporting teams in countries they don't operate in, and that they don't plan to expand to in the foreseeable future? (1 point, 1 comment)
  5. 66 points, 7 submissions: FrankVillain
    1. Can the Euro become the global currency for trade? (17 points, 3 comments)
    2. Is China still considered a centrally planned economy? (16 points, 4 comments)
    3. Ressources on the Soviet industrial failures due to poor economics? (14 points, 2 comments)
    4. What is the reason behind France's high unemployment rate? (9 points, 14 comments)
    5. About Land Value Tax & Single Tax: how would it affect farmers and those of them who own their land? (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. Does welfare policies contribute to inflation? (2 points, 1 comment)
    7. If a Bitcoin is worth $1 000 000 and some persons like Satoshi have one or more millions of it... what power do they have? Can they disrupt the financial system with the huge amount of dollars that they have? (1 point, 8 comments)
  6. 66 points, 1 submission: imadeadinside
    1. If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises (66 points, 16 comments)
  7. 64 points, 6 submissions: Serpenthrope
    1. Have there been any serious proposals for economic systems that don't use money? (23 points, 67 comments)
    2. Could a company ever become quality-control for a market in which they're competing, assuming no government interference? (16 points, 4 comments)
    3. Is there a formal name for this? (15 points, 6 comments)
    4. Why are second-hand clothing donations fundamentally different from other types of imports? (5 points, 1 comment)
    5. I saw this article on a UN report calling for the dismantling of Capitalism to stop Global Warming, and was wondering what most economists think of the claims? (3 points, 4 comments)
    6. Peter Navarro and Lyndon Larouche? (2 points, 1 comment)
  8. 62 points, 2 submissions: JeffGotSwags
    1. What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background? (36 points, 38 comments)
    2. How did the financial crisis affect the demand for economists? (26 points, 5 comments)
  9. 61 points, 11 submissions: Chumbaka
    1. Can someone explain M0 , M1 and M2 to me? (13 points, 2 comments)
    2. Can anyone explain why this happens and what it means? (11 points, 3 comments)
    3. Can a monopoly also be a monopsony? (10 points, 13 comments)
    4. Why is inflation and deflation bad? (10 points, 8 comments)
    5. Stupid question but : Why does printing lots of money lead to inflation? (5 points, 14 comments)
    6. Why aren't all banks Full Reserve Banking? (5 points, 3 comments)
    7. What does this stock market fall mean to the economy as a whole? (4 points, 4 comments)
    8. How would an universal free market deal with situations like NK? (3 points, 21 comments)
    9. How do I pick an economist ideology to support? (0 points, 3 comments)
    10. Is investing in Forex worth it? (0 points, 15 comments)
  10. 60 points, 6 submissions: Jollygood156
    1. Why didn't quantitative easing + low interest rates raise inflation high? (20 points, 36 comments)
    2. How do we actually refute MMT? (14 points, 68 comments)
    3. Tax Cuts boost Consumption, but the growth is short term while investments are long term. Why? (12 points, 7 comments)
    4. How exactly are land value taxes calculated? (6 points, 3 comments)
    5. What is Nominal GDP targeting and why do so many people advocate for it? (5 points, 16 comments)
    6. What even is Austerity? (3 points, 3 comments)
  11. 49 points, 1 submission: Akehc99
    1. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? (49 points, 27 comments)
  12. 48 points, 1 submission: Traveledfarwestward
    1. What do most Economists think about The Economist? (48 points, 26 comments)
  13. 48 points, 1 submission: piltonpfizerwallace
    1. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? (48 points, 31 comments)
  14. 47 points, 6 submissions: lalze123
    1. Will Bernie's "STOP BEZOS" plan lower the opportunity cost of hiring non-poor workers, thereby harming poor workers? (19 points, 15 comments)
    2. What does the current economic literature say about the effects of net neutrality? (14 points, 0 comments)
    3. What government programs have been empirically proven to help displaced workers from import competition? (8 points, 0 comments)
    4. By how much does lowering the budget deficit lower the trade deficit? (5 points, 4 comments)
    5. What are some good studies analyzing the difference in efficiency between markets and central planning? (1 point, 1 comment)
    6. Is the study below reliable? (0 points, 3 comments)
  15. 45 points, 1 submission: gh0bs
    1. Why does the economy have to be a series of bubbles and bursts/corrections, rather than a sustained gradual growth? (45 points, 32 comments)
  16. 42 points, 1 submission: Turnt_Up_For_What
    1. You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy? (42 points, 24 comments)
  17. 41 points, 1 submission: Crane_Train
    1. How could Venezuela fix its economy? (41 points, 19 comments)
  18. 41 points, 1 submission: TheHoleInMoi
    1. Are there any papers/solid arguments about the benefits of having more local business as opposed to corporate consolidation? (41 points, 2 comments)
  19. 39 points, 5 submissions: UyhAEqbnp
    1. Does income inequality really matter? (19 points, 39 comments)
    2. What happens when there's a surplus of labour? Can there ever be a point where the wages earned are less than the cost of living? (10 points, 2 comments)
    3. Several questions (4 points, 4 comments)
    4. "Keeping seniors from retiring does not boost wages via aggregate demand" (3 points, 5 comments)
    5. Is Okun's Law valid? (3 points, 3 comments)
  20. 39 points, 4 submissions: justinVOLuntary
    1. Best resource on the financial crisis of 2008 (17 points, 7 comments)
    2. Blogs? (11 points, 5 comments)
    3. Econ Internship (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. Not sure if this is the kind of question I should be asking here. I’m an Undergrad Econ major and I’m looking for reading recommendations. Anything from economic theory, history, current research, etc. Main interest is Macro. Thanks (4 points, 5 comments)
  21. 39 points, 2 submissions: ConditionalDew
    1. How much would the iPhone be if it was made in the US? (37 points, 15 comments)
    2. Who are some famous people/celebrities that were economics majors? (2 points, 2 comments)
  22. 39 points, 1 submission: rangerlinks
    1. Who are the best economist to follow on Twitter? (39 points, 16 comments)
  23. 36 points, 5 submissions: CanadianAsshole1
    1. If free trade is so good, then why do countries insist on making trade deals? Why can't we just abolish all tariffs? (18 points, 11 comments)
    2. If climate change is such a huge problem, then why aren't countries utilizing nuclear energy more? (8 points, 17 comments)
    3. Do I understand the problem with"trickle-down" economics correctly? (6 points, 38 comments)
    4. How much of the Reagan administration's deficits could be attributed to increased defense spending? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. If automation will result in less jobs, then shouldn't the government stop incentivizing childbirth through tax credits and stop immigration? (1 point, 12 comments)
  24. 35 points, 7 submissions: MedStudent-96
    1. Is my textbook wrong? (11 points, 8 comments)
    2. Quasi-convexity of the Indirect Utility Function? (9 points, 14 comments)
    3. Consumer Demand Interpretation for Cobb Douglas-Non Convex to Origin. (4 points, 6 comments)
    4. Do monopolies produce the same as a competitive firm in the long run? (4 points, 8 comments)
    5. Interpretation of Lagrange Multipliers for Consumer (4 points, 4 comments)
    6. Optimisation when MRTS > price ratio (2 points, 7 comments)
    7. Help with the Partial Derivative of the Marginal Cost Function. (1 point, 10 comments)
  25. 35 points, 1 submission: grate1438
    1. Why do Croatians receieve so much more through their pension than their working wage? (35 points, 8 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. BainCapitalist (2626 points, 648 comments)
  2. Calvo_fairy (947 points, 232 comments)
  3. smalleconomist (885 points, 255 comments)
  4. RobThorpe (776 points, 259 comments)
  5. zzzzz94 (577 points, 111 comments)
  6. Cross_Keynesian (520 points, 108 comments)
  7. Integralds (418 points, 68 comments)
  8. penguin_rider222 (395 points, 116 comments)
  9. whyrat (362 points, 69 comments)
  10. bbqroast (319 points, 74 comments)
  11. MrDannyOcean (314 points, 54 comments)
  12. isntanywhere (207 points, 63 comments)
  13. RedditUser91805 (189 points, 28 comments)
  14. CapitalismAndFreedom (176 points, 68 comments)
  15. benjaminikuta (171 points, 112 comments)
  16. LucasCritique (162 points, 33 comments)
  17. raptorman556 (157 points, 44 comments)
  18. lawrencekhoo (156 points, 22 comments)
  19. daokedao4 (131 points, 16 comments)
  20. Yankee9204 (121 points, 15 comments)
  21. roboczar (112 points, 20 comments)
  22. RegulatoryCapture (109 points, 23 comments)
  23. ecolonomist (105 points, 45 comments)
  24. TheoryOfSomething (102 points, 9 comments)
  25. Forgot_the_Jacobian (97 points, 31 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics by MrDannyOcean (75 points, 135 comments)
  2. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? by benjaminikuta (71 points, 12 comments)
  3. If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises by imadeadinside (66 points, 16 comments)
  4. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? by benjaminikuta (64 points, 24 comments)
  5. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? by Akehc99 (49 points, 27 comments)
  6. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? by piltonpfizerwallace (48 points, 31 comments)
  7. What do most Economists think about The Economist? by Traveledfarwestward (48 points, 26 comments)
  8. Why does the economy have to be a series of bubbles and bursts/corrections, rather than a sustained gradual growth? by gh0bs (45 points, 32 comments)
  9. What is the difference in knowledge between academic economists(Krugman, Acemoglu, Mankiw etc) and hedge fund managers and the like(Soros, James Simons)? by deleted (43 points, 5 comments)
  10. You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy? by Turnt_Up_For_What (42 points, 24 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 62 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Milton Friedman is well respected by many economists, why aren't there more Libertarians?
  2. 62 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Milton Friedman is well respected by many economists, why aren't there more Libertarians?
  3. 59 points: RedditUser91805's comment in The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be?
  4. 58 points: arctigos's comment in What do most Economists think about The Economist?
  5. 55 points: hbtn's comment in Why are Little Caesar's cheese pizzas the same price as its pepperoni pizzas?
  6. 54 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Could someone explain the wage gap and whether it's a myth or not.
  7. 51 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises
  8. 51 points: RedditUser91805's comment in You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy?
  9. 51 points: smalleconomist's comment in What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background?
  10. 49 points: TheoryOfSomething's comment in Which parts of Marxism are theoretically dependent on the labor theory of value and which are not?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Emmanuel Macron wins the 2017 French presidential elections with 65.5%

BBC
Deutsche Welle
Reuters Canada
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Reuters
Middle East Eye
Bloomberg
The Globe and Mail{not secure | pause ad block}
CBC
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The Telegraph
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Jokes Whenever I see an Xbox 360 Xbox
funny Kublai Khan. If this reaches the front page it will be the top Google search of the top Google search for Kublai Khan. Google
todayilearned TIL Mike Tyson has coped with negative emotions throughout his life by caring for pigeons. As a child he suffered bullying & depression the first punch he ever threw was at a bully that killed one of his birds & as an adult with his sunk career and death of his 4 year-old daughter. Tyson
funny Seen at Walmart in OKC........ Walmart
Music Miley Cyrus and Flaming Lips - Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds Psychedelia Sky
AskReddit People of Walmart that voted for Trump, what do you think of his performance thus far? Walmart
AskReddit Why are Youtube beauty gurus so much naturally beautiful? Is it a trick or harsh reality? Youtube
EarthPorn The Barren Spell Continues. Glutton Bridge, England, United Kingdom. By Andrew Mowbray 2048 X 1161. United
pics Neil deGrasse Tyson at a high school wrestling match Tyson
explainlikeimfive ELI5: What would the United States look like today if no humans have ever explored the land? United
AskReddit How often does Google preform a backup on Android? Google
nosleep It was all because I clicked on a Facebook invitation Facebook
Jokes You stole my Microsoft Office and for that you’re going to pay... Microsoft
AskReddit Breaking News Donald Trump will be the 45th President of the United States. What can we expect from Donald Trump? United
worldnews Kevin O'Leary: Canada's Donald Trump? - BBC News BBC
movies Cult Japanese Helmer Seijun Suzuki Dies Tokyo Drifter, Branded to Kill Suzuki
gaming How cool? Lego Defender Arcade Cabinet. Lego
funny Only on Facebook 🙄 Facebook
videos the cast of Sesame Street Google Sesame Street and themselves Google
personalfinance Incorrect balance in online Chase account..? 30 dollars more than it should be Chase
pics Has anyone ever noticed that the optical sensor on the old Dell mice is shifted to the LEFT by like, three millimetres? I have. And now I'm angry. Dell
UpliftingNews Teen in China crashes into BMW and learns why honesty is the best policy BMW
explainlikeimfive ELI5: Was the United States really protecting Latin America from European colonization with the Monroe Doctrine? United
gadgets AMD Ryzen pricing: $500 for 8-core 1800X CPU, undercutting Intel by $600 Intel
movies Review: The Lego Dark Knight Begins 2017 Lego
worldnews Sweden’s official Twitter account debunks Donald Trump claims line by line Twitter
mildlyinteresting These slices of bread with spreads of varying colors look like a meal from a Michelin star restaurant. Michelin
worldnews Facebook confusion over fake cancer babies U-turn - BBC News BBC
worldnews Police appoints first female chief Cressida Dick - BBC News BBC
AskReddit Microsoft programmers: How does Microsoft spin writing spy software for Windows 10 around the office to make it look like something totally acceptable? Microsoft
explainlikeimfive ELI5: What causes the Coca-Cola and Liquid Nitrogen bottle rocket to take off "like a rocket"? Coca-Cola
mildlyinteresting When you Google "vice president of the united states" you still get far more responses for Joe Biden than Mike Pence Google
AskReddit Reddit, what's your most crazy true Waffle House OR Walmart story? Walmart
WritingPrompts WP A 2nd American civil war between California and its allies versus the United States. United
worldnews Green campaigners welcome Coca-Cola U-turn on bottle & can recycling scheme - Environmentalists hail ‘landmark moment’ as world’s biggest soft drinks company agrees to set up pilot scheme in Scotland Coca-Cola
Showerthoughts Imagine if Facebook and Whatsapp notified you when someone took a screenshot of your conversation..... Facebook
AskReddit Serious What is your favorite Twitter account? Twitter
Showerthoughts Chuck E. Cheese's are a farm system for kids to become Casino enthusiasts as adults Casino
movies My partner and I recorded an episode of our podcast reviewing The Lego Batman Movie. Lego
worldnews Beware! Don't Fall For "Font Wasn't Found" Google Chrome Malware Scam Google
Showerthoughts With all the tracking Google does, you'd think they'd show me some ads for products I'd actually buy. Google
mildlyinteresting 3 separate photos taken of the finish of my race, stitched together beautifully by Google Photos. The only discernable mistake is the man standing by the water. Google
AskReddit Serious Drunks of Reddit, what is the perfect Taco Bell order? Bell
photoshopbattles PsBattle: Bill Gates holding an Xbox controller and cheeseburger Xbox
AskReddit What are some things that the Liberals and Conservatives in the United States can agree on TODAY? United
sports [Why it matters that Bills QB Tyrod Taylor reportedly has a clean bill of health FOX Sports](https://www.reddit.com/sports/comments/5vjiok/why_it_matters_that_bills_qb_tyrod_taylo)
funny How to Pronounce Porsche - Tom School Porsche
videos Pinocchio's story as told by a Playstation 2 Game... Playstation
todayilearned TIL in addition to patenting the first practical telephone, Alexander Graham Bell developed a hydrofoil motorboat that broke the world marine speed record. Bell
news Panda's first flight: FedEx sends Bao Bao to China FedEx
todayilearned TIL Neil deGrasse Tyson Was an Undefeated Jigh School Wrestling Captain and Wrestled for Harvard Tyson
videos BEYOND BORDERS - The BMW Motorrad LEGO bike BMW
videos Every Nike Commercial Nike
AskReddit People who have lived all over the United States, where are your favorite/least favorite places to live? United
funny Apparently Victoria's Secret forgot how to photo shop. NSFW Victoria's Secret
movies in the Lego batman movie they kept calling the Daleks "British robots". did the film makes genuinely not know the daleks aren't technically robots, or is the idea that the kid playing with the lego in the real world doesn't know what they are? Lego
space Neil DeGrasse Tyson discussing what NASA could be announcing today. Potential atmosphere readings very well explained. Tyson
news Here's the best argument for Apple buying Netflix Apple
worldnews Switzerland's ABB hit by $100 million South Korean fraud ABB
worldnews Switzerland's ABB company hit by $100 million South Korean fraud ABB
nottheonion McDonald's reengineered the straw and is marketing it like an Apple product. Apple
space Labour deputy leader 'dabs' during PMQs - BBC News BBC
Showerthoughts What if Apple had made The Matrix? What would it look like? Apple
funny This showed up on my Facebook feed Facebook
todayilearned TIL Carmel, Indiana has become internationally known for its roundabout network. It now has 100 roundabouts, more than any other city in the United States. United
AskReddit What is a Youtube channel that you always watch but would never subscribe to? Youtube
AskReddit Serious Who was actually the worst U.S. president in United States history? United
videos Neil DeGrasse Tyson tells Joe Rogan that some infinities are bigger than others Tyson
space Star's seven Earth-sized worlds set record - BBC News BBC
space Astronomers Discover 7 Earth-Like Planets Orbiting Nearby Star Discover
worldnews Mexico will not accept new "unilateral" U.S. immigration proposals, and will not hesitate in approaching the United Nations to defend immigrants, the country's Foreign Minister Luis Videgaray said on Wednesday, ahead of a meeting with senior U.S. officials. United
worldnews Star's seven Earth-sized worlds set record - BBC News BBC
AskReddit Besides Donald Trump, which meme would you want elected into office as president of the United States? United
AskReddit In regards to the "Miracle on Ice" anniversary, what are some other amazing underdog stories from other countries victories against the United States? United
gaming Possibly Sony's best un-official Playstation gaming headphones - The Sony MDR-ZX110NA Overhead Noise Cancelling Headphones.#bargain Sony
gaming Possibly Sony's best un-official Playstation gaming headphones - The Sony MDR-ZX110NA Overhead Noise Cancelling Headphones.#bargain Playstation
science Star's seven Earth-sized worlds set record - BBC News BBC
gifs Harrison Ford landing on a taxiway at SNA Ford
mildlyinteresting There's a mummified gecko in my tail light. Yes, I have Geico insurance Geico
Music Frida Amundsen - Nothing Compares 2U Piano Cover After watching the Google Pixel commercial, I had to figure out who this was. Amazing cover. Google
tifu TIFU by pasting theLegend27 in a Google Doc Google
history The Untold History of the United States accuracy United
Jokes Have you noticed that if you Google the phrase, "Lost mediaeval servant boy"... Google
mildlyinteresting This McDonald's has a hand sanitizer dispenser on the bathroom door handle McDonald's
news Astronomers Discover 7 Earth-sized Planets Orbiting Nearby Star Discover
photoshopbattles PsBattle: McDonald's in 1980 McDonald's
funny The all new Suzuki Swfit Suzuki
AskReddit What are the "hidden gems" of Apple apps? Apple
personalfinance How to not pay the $95 annual fee on your Chase Sapphire Preferred card year 2+ Chase
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Jim Brown - YouTube YouTube Is mcdonalds open Labour day? Happy Labor Day! Tories and Labour punished in local elections - YouTube IHFL Day 9 Cores Galore Forex Trading: Fractal Geometry, Relative Strength, Trade The News

We would like to inform you that due to Labour Day, the trading hours of some instruments will be affected.. Please see below the market opening times from Friday 1st of May (GMT).. Forex. FX – Normal Hours. Metals. XAUUSD – Normal Hours XAGUSD – Normal Hours EnergiesXTIUSD – Normal Hours XBRUSD – Normal Hours US CFD IndicesUS30 – Normal Hours This Labor Day won’t feel like recent ones, with millions still out of work nearly six months since the coronavirus tore apart the fabric of daily American life. Schools and universities that typically recall students to class after the Labor Day holiday also continue to weigh whether its safe or not to open their doors across the nation. But on Monday, many U.S. office workers can count on ... Forex; Commodities; Shares; Futures; Indices. Tools. Currency Converter; Calculators. About. Our project; Contact us. FxPro Direct Log in/Signup. Home › Brokers News › Labour Day: trading time schedule changes. Brokers News. Labour Day: trading time schedule changes. April 28, 2020 @ 16:44 +03:00. On Friday, May 1st, the following instruments will not be available for trading: – CFDs on ... Die Forex Handelszeiten beginnen ... Juli und Labour Day in den USA; Juli in Frankreich; Dezember; Dezember; Neujahr; Da Devisen weltweit gehandelt werden, steht der Betrieb an lokalen Feiertag nicht komplett still. Es kann aber passieren, dass einige Cross Pairs sowie exotischere Währungspaare nicht verfügbar sind. So werden beispielsweise die Währungspaare, die den Russischen Rubel ... Forex Holidays 2020. If you’re trading on Forex (Stocks), it’s important to know when Forex weekends and National holidays occur.Banks (and forex brokers) would not have full services and benefits. Traders are enjoying a long holiday weekend in the U.S. as stock markets, including the NYSE and NASDAQ, are closed in observance of Labor Day. U.S. commod Rainy Labour Day Fiona Cincotta May 1 ... FOREX.com is a trading name of GAIN Global Markets Inc. which is authorized and regulated by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority under the Securities Investment Business Law of the Cayman Islands (as revised) with License number 25033. FOREX.com may, from time to time, offer payment processing services with respect to card deposits through its ...

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Jim Brown - YouTube

LIVE Forex Trading - LONDON Thu, Feb, 13th Trade With Monty 236 watching. Live now; The Odyssey YouTube Movies. 2018 · Drama; 2:03:16. Why do Americans and Canadians celebrate Labor Day? -Kenneth ... My name is Jim Brown and I am a full-time Forex Trader. I first became interested in the Forex markets back in early 2002 when I attended a stock trading mee... 0827542186 Forex trading is my life and it's been helping me to be free from world's struggles. Hello, it's Kei! I was born in Japan 1982 and went abroad after high sch... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Labour Law Advisor 135 watching. Live now ; This is THE BEST SPEECH EVER from ABRAHAM! - ABRAHAM HICKS - Duration: 40:20. JoYous Journey Recommended for you. 40:20. Coronaspection - Interview with ... They may not yet agree on a Brexit deal, but Theresa May has concurred with Jeremy Corbyn that the failure to deliver Brexit lies behind their English local ... Today we discuss how to line up multiple time frames within your forex trading plan. We then discuss how to choose the correct currency pair to trade using a quick relative strength exercise. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Is mcdonalds open Labour day? McDonald's is open on Labor Day 2018. According to Forex-Mind, who specializes in holiday store and shopping mall hours, they have the fast food giants labeled as ...

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